15 April 2011

Diabetic Foot Ulceration Causes and Risk Factors

More than 20 percent of patients with diabetes mellitus will end with foot problems. Foot ulceration is the main cause of many related diabetic limb amputations each year. The three main causes of the foot ulcers are: neuropathy, mechanical stress which causes injuries and abnormalities.Neuropathy neuropathy: diabetes is a disorder of the peripheral nerves and is the direct result of chronic hyperglycemia. Patients with poorly controlled glucose levels show a trend in diabetic neuropathy. Initially, the symptoms of neuropathy can be also light to go unnoticed. Occasional numbness, tingling or pain in the feet causing progressive weakness of the muscles in the feet.Deformation is one of the direct results of neuropathy and exacerbates the ulceration in the foot. This can happen because of two reasons: neuropathy causes loss of sensation in the nerves (partial paralysis of the small muscles of the foot). This diminished sensation leads to the levies of the toes. When the metatarsal heads on the soles of the foot (Plantar area) get exposed, this skin becomes calleuses. These callus will cause the skin to tear apart and fill with fluid. Soon the infection seeps in.Charcot foot, the second cause of deformation, is also a direct consequence of neuropathy. In this condition, the bones in the foot are subjected to trauma and will be slowly disintegrate. Foot gets distorted and bone in the middle of the foot starts to protrude. This os and the area of notoriety, it produced and then becomes the site of ulceration and infection.Stress and trauma: a neuropathic foot is subject to three mechanisms of stress related to injury: ischemia, repetitive stress and direct trauma. These repetitive stress is the most common cause of injury. Since the neuropathy often results in loss of sensation, a patient is unconscious of undue hardship that his foot is submitted. In diabetics, the position of maximum loading in the foot corresponds to callus site. Diabetics, as a general rule, spread the pressure very low weight on the toes to normal people.Ischemia means restriction in blood flow to a part of the body. In diabetics, the circulation of blood to the extremities is severely restricted. The absence of input rich oxygen in the blood on foot means that the chances of infection are more and injuries would take more time to heal. This is the beginning of a foot ulceration.Direct trauma is often the result of any damages direct as walking on something sharp or injuring the foot on a stone. The wound refuses to heal.Risk factors: foot ulcers are important factors when it comes to mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Patients who develop foot ulcers can live with him for some time before they become aware of the intensity of the wound. As a result, most foot ulcers would be increased well above the primary stages of infection. These patients require long periods of hospitalization and complicated procedures for recovery. If the ulcer does not respond to treatment, the patient ultimately risk of amputation of the foot, or even the entire leg.Control of risk factors may prevent worsening ulcers. A way to reduce risk factors is: manage your diabetes well on a regular basis.Lose weight if you are overweight.Wear comfortable foot wear and protect your feet to all timesUse as Yoga exercises to improve the circulation in the feet.Examine your feet closely to pick up the signs or symptoms of a wound or a wound.